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Quantum Numbers
According to the quantum-mechanical theory of the atom, any electron within an atom can be described by using a set of four unique numbers known as quantum numbers. Together, these four quantum numbers designate the quantum state of the electron inside the atom. The first quantum number is known as the principal quantum number and it tells us the energy level of the electron. The second quantum number known as the orbital quantum number refers to the shape of the electron cloud (also known as the orbital) formed by the electron. The third quantum number is known as the magnetic quantum number and it tells us the orientation of the electron orbital in the three dimensional space. The last and fourth quantum number tells us the "spin" of our electron.
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