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Organogenesis
Organogenesis is the process by which the three different germ layers begin to grow, differentiation and rearrange themselves to form the many different tissues, organs and systems that make up the adult human individual. The ectoderm layer forms the integumentary system (epidermis of skin, hair and hair follicles, nails, melanocytes, sensory skin cells, sweat glands and sebaceous glands), the nervous system (central and peripheral nervous system), sensory organs (lens and cornea of eye), epithelium of mouth and anus, epithelium of pituitary and pineal glands, adrenal medulla and tooth enamel. The mesoderm layer forms the three types of muscles (skeletal, smooth and cardiac), the cardiovascular system (heart, blood and blood vessels), skeletal system (bone and cartilage), lymphatic system, adrenal cortex, dermis of the skin, excretory system (kidneys) and reproductive system (gonads). The endoderm layer forms the majority of the epithelium of the organism, including most of the epithelium of the digestive tract (small and large intestine, stomach), the liver, pancreas and gallbladder, the epithelium of reproductive ducts, lungs, urethra, bladder and glands such as thymus, thyroid and parathyroid gland.
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