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Molecular Electron Transitions
When atoms combine to form molecules, their electron probability densities overlap and they form what we generally call a chemical bond. Typically this overlap of electron densities creates a stabilizing effect and lowers the energy of the molecule. Although the energy of electrons change when molecules are formed, electrons in molecules are nonetheless capable of undergoing electron transitions. That is, just like electrons in atoms can undergo a transition when they gain a photon of just the right frequency, electrons in molecules can also jump to higher quantum states. When these electrons in the molecule return to their ground quantum state, they release energy. The different electron transitions that can take place in any given molecule is described by the band spectrum, which is just the emission line spectrum of the molecule. The big different between atomic transitions and molecular transitions is that there are many more molecular electron transitions that can exist. This is as a result of the fact that molecule can undergo rotational and vibrational motion, which alters the energy of the electron.
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