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Mitosis and Cytokinesis
Mitosis is a type of cell division that is carried out by somatic cells. Every somatic cell that undergoes mitosis produces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells, meaning that the cell chromosome number remains the same during cell division. Mitosis can be divided into four phases - prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, followed by a process known as cytokinesis, which begins in telophase. Prophase involves the condensing of chromatin into chromosomes, the movement of the centrioles to opposite poles of the cell and the synthesis of the mitotic spindle apparatus, the deterioration of the nuclear membrane and the disappearance of the nucleoulus, and the synthesis of the kinetochores on each chromosome. During metaphase, the centrioles are now on opposite poles and have attached their spindle fibers onto the kinetochores. They also align all the chromosome pairs along the center of the cell. During anaphase, disjunction takes place. Disjunction is the separation of the chromosome pairs by the pulling of the spindle fibers, which separate the chromosomes to opposite poles. During telophase, the chromosomes have been separated and the nuclear membrane begins to reform around both sets, thereby forming two nuclei. The spindle apparatus deteriorates and the chromosomes begin to decondense into chromatin in preparation for interphase. Cytokinesis, the process by which the cell divides the cell membrane and cytoplasm into two cells, begins and continues after telophase ends. Once the cell undergoes mitosis, it produces two genetically identical diploid cells. Note that a normal human cell can only divide a finite number of times.
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