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Heat and Energy Transfer
Although heat and energy are used interchangeably, they are not really synonymous. Heat refers to the process by which energy is transferred from one system to a second system due to a difference in temperature between those two systems. If you take a hot metal bar and place it into water at room temperature, heat will take place and energy will flow from the hotter object (the metal bar) to the cooler object (the water). Overtime, the temperature of the metal bar will drop because energy will flow out of that object. On the other hand, energy of the water will increase and it will rise in temperature. Eventually thermal equilibrium will be reached as the two temperatures of the two systems will equalize. Once the temperatures are equal, no more energy will flow as a result of a difference in temperature. A common unit that is used to measure the quantity of energy is a calorie. One calorie is equal to the amount of energy that is required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. Another unit is known as the Calorie (with an uppercase c), which is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. One Calorie (with uppercase c) is equal to one thousand calories (lowercase c).
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