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Gibbs Free Energy and Spontaneity
Gibbs free energy is the thermodynamical quantity that is used to describe whether the reaction under given conditions is spontaneous (product-favored, exergonic) or non-spontaneous (reactant-favored, endergonic). The chemical reaction is said to be spontaneous if the Gibbs free energy under non-standard conditions is negative. In such as case, energy will be released and this free energy can be used to power other endergonic reactions. On the other hand, if the reaction is non-spontaneous, then energy is required to get the process going. Notice that even if Gibbs free energy for a reaction under standard conditions (i.e. 1 M concentration for all reactants and products) is positive, that does not mean that the reaction is not spontaneous under some other conditions. This implies that by changing the concentration of reactants and products, an endergonic reaction can be made exergonic.
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