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Fructose and Galactose Breakdown Pathways
The three most common monosaccharides that are part of the human diet are glucose, fructose and galactose. Unlike glucose, fructose and galactose do no actually have their own catabolic pathway. Instead, our cells convert the fructose and galactose into glycolytic metabolites and then incorporate them into glycolysis for pyruvate and ATP synthesis. Fructose can follow either one of two pathways. In the cells of the liver, fructose molecules follow the fructose 1-phosphate pathway that consists of three steps and ultimately transforms the fructose into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Other cells can transform fructose into fructose 6-phosphate before cycling it into the glycolytic pathway. Galactose follows a single pathway called the galactose-glucose interconversion pathway. This pathway transforms the galactose into glucose 6-phosphate via a four step process.
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