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DNA Polymerase and Catalysis of Phosphodiester Bond
In 1958, Arthur Kornberg and his team isolated and studied an important protein involved in the DNA replication process called DNA polymerase. DNA polymerase catalyzes the formation of the phosphodiester bond by adding the deoxynucleoside triphosphate onto the growing polynucleotide chain. During this step-wise process, a single pyrophosphate molecule is released every time the chain is elongated by one deoxyribonucleotide. As we shall see later on, this pyrophosphate actually drives the replication process forward. DNA polymerase requires (a) the four types of deoxynucleoside triphosphates (b) the DNA template and (c) a primer to synthesize the polynucleotide chain. DNA polymerase also displays nuclease activity, which means it has the ability to remove mismatched bases and insert the correct complementary bases.
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