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Chemical Shift and Shielding Effect
When the proton inside the nucleus of the hydrogen atom gains just the right amount of energy, it can undergo resonance and the frequency of resonance is known as the chemical shift. The value of the chemical shift for any hydrogen atom depends on its neighboring environment; more specifically, it depends on the magnetic field that it experiences. The external magnetic field can easily influence the electron density found around the nucleus of the hydrogen atom. When the external magnetic field is turned on, the electron density begins to fluctuate as to induce its own magnetic field that opposes the external magnetic field. Therefore, the net magnetic field will be less than the external magnetic field as a result of this induced magnetic field. This is called the shielding effect because the electron density is said to shield the proton in the nucleus from the external magnetic field by decreasing the net magnetic field that is experiences.
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