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Asexual Reproduction (Budding, Fission, Regeneration and Parthenogenesis)
Asexual reproduction is the process by which an organism is produced from a single parent cell. There are four major forms of asexual reproduction - budding, binary fission, regeneration and parthenogenesis. Budding is characterized by the formation of a daughter cell that has the same genetic information but is much smaller in size. Yeast cells (unicellular eukaryotes) and hydra (multicellular eukaryotes) are two organisms that undergo budding. Binary fission, a form of reproduction that bacterial cells undergo, is the process by which the cell divides into two equal daughter cells that have identical genetic information. Regeneration is a type of asexual reproduction in which the organism is capable of regrowing certain body parts. Regeneration occurs via mitosis. Lizards can regenerate their tails, star fish can regenerate their arms while humans have the ability to regenerate their liver to a certain extent. Parthenogenesis is the process by which an unfertilized egg transforms into a fully function organism. Since the egg is haploid, it produces organisms which are also haploid. In some cases, the organism can regain its diploid number of chromosomes. Ants and bees are two examples of organisms that undergo parthenogenesis.
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